Conditions for the correctness of Wudhu
There are thirteen conditions for a correct Wudhu:
First condition: The water for Wudhu should be Pak.
Second condition: The water should be pure (and not mixed).
271. Wudhu performed with Najis or mixed water is void, even if one may not be aware of its being Najis, or mixed, or may have forgotten about it. And if one has offered prayers with that Wudhu, one should repeat that prayers with a valid Wudhu.
272. If a person does not have any water to perform Wudhu, except that which is murky with clay, he should perform Tayammum if only a short time is left for prayers; and if he has enough time at his disposal, he should wait till the water becomes limpid, and then perform Wudhu with it.
Third condition: The water and the place where the Wudhu is taking place should be Mubah (permissible for use).
273. To perform Wudhu with usurped water, or with water about which one does not know whether the owner would allow its use, is Haraam, and Wudhu will be void.
Furthermore, if the water of Wudhu used for washing face and hands, falls on usurped land, and has no other place to go for Wudhu, his Wudhu will be void. And if he performs Wudhu in a lawful place, his Wudhu will be valid.
274. If a person does not know whether the pool of a Madressah (seminary) has been dedicated to the general public, or exclusively to the students of Madressah, there is no harm in doing Wudhu there, provided that people usually do so at that place without prohibition.
275. If it is known that pool of a Masjid has been dedicated specifically to those who offer prayers in that Masjid, one cannot perform Wudhu with the water of the pool of that Masjid, who does not want to offer prayer there. Moreover, it is better not to do Wudhu with that water even if one is not sure that pool of a Masjid has been dedicated specifically to those who offer prayers in that Masjid. However, if people, who do not pray in that Masjid, usually perform Wudhu there, and by this act of people one becomes certain about pool water not being dedicated to those who pray in that Masjid.
276. Performing Wudhu from the pools of the inns and hotels etc. by persons who are not residing there, is valid if they are assure that the owner is content, even if that assurance comes from those persons who are not staying there and usually perform Wudhu with that water, without being prohibited.
277. There is no harm if a person performs Wudhu in the water flowing in big canals, even if he does not know whether the owner of that canal would allow. But, if the owner of the canal prohibits performing Wudhu with that water, then as per obligatory precaution, one should refrain from doing Wudhu in it.
278. If a person forgets that the water has been usurped, and performs Wudhu with it, his Wudhu is in order. But, if a person has usurped the water himself, and then forgets about it, his Wudhu, as per precautionary measure, with that water will be void.
Fourth condition: The container of the water, used by the person concerned for Wudhu, should be Mubah (permissible for use by him).
Fifth condition: The container of the water used for Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver.
279. If the water for Wudhu is in a usurped container or is in the vessels of gold and silver, and there is no other water available, he should perform Tayammum, and
cannot perform Wudhu with that water. If one has other water in usurped container or is in the vessels of gold or silver performs Wudhu by immersion or pours water on his face and hands, his Wudhu will be void. However, if one takes out water with his hand or by any other thing and pours it on his face and hand to perform Wudhu, his Wudhu is valid, though he has committed sin by using usurped or gold or silver container.
280. As per obligatory precaution, one should not perform Wudhu from a pool of water which has for example one usurped stone or brick in it.
281. If a pool or a canal is dug in the courtyards of the Shrines of Imams, or their descendants, which was previously a grave-yard, there is no harm in performing Wudhu with water of that pool or canal, if he did not know that land was previously dedicated as a graveyard.
Sixth condition: The parts of the body on which Wudhu is performed, should be Pak, at the time of washing and wiping.
282. If the place which has been already washed or wiped in Wudhu becomes Najis, before the completion of the Wudhu, it will be deemed valid.
283. If any other part of the body other than the parts of Wudhu is Najis, the Wudhu will be in order. However, if the outlet of urine or excretion has not been made Pak, the recommended precaution is that one should make them Pak first, and then perform Wudhu.
284. If any one part of Wudhu was Najis, and after performing Wudhu one doubts whether he washed it before Wudhu or not, since he did not pay attention towards those parts and them being Najis and Pak, during the Wudhu, in that case Wudhu will be void. If he knows that he was alert or doubts whether he was alert or not during performing Wudhu, in this case his Wudhu is valid. But, in both cases he should wash the part which was Najis. However, if he knew that he did not wash that part before Wudhu but got washed out while performing Wudhu, in this case washing is not required.
285. If a person has a cut or wound on his face, or hands, and the blood from it does not stop, and if water is not harmful for him, he should put the place of wound or cut in Kurr-water or running water, and press it a little so that the blood may stop. Then he should pass his hand or finger, with the intention of doing Wudhu, on the wound
or cut, from above downwards, so that water may flow on it. This way his Wudhu will be in order.
Seventh condition: The person doing Wudhu should have sufficient time to perform Wudhu and Namaz.
286. If the time is so short that by doing Wudhu, the entire prayers or a part of it will have to be offered after its time, he should perform Tayammum. But if he feels that the time required for Tayammum and Wudhu is equal, then he should do Wudhu.
287. If a person, who should have performed Tayammum owing to little time for Namaz at his disposal, performs Wudhu with the Niyyat (intention) of Qurbat, or for any Mustahab act, like, reading the holy Qur'an, his Wudhu is in order. However, if one performs Wudhu for that Namaz, in such a way that his motive is just to pray that Namaz only, his Wudhu will be void.
Eighth condition: One should perform Wudhu with the Niyyat (intention) of Qurbat i.e. to obey the orders of Allah. If a person performs Wudhu, for the purpose of cooling himself or for some other purpose, the Wudhu would be void.
288. It is not necessary that one should utter the Niyyat of Wudhu in words, or think about it in his mind. It is sufficient that one should pay attention towards the acts of performing Wudhu throughout the Wudhu in such a way that if he is asked about what he is doing? He should answer: I am performing Wudhu.
Ninth Condition: Wudhu should be performed in the prescribed sequence, that is, he should first wash his face, then his right hand and then his left hand, and thereafter, he should wipe his head and then the feet. One should not wipe his left foot before his right foot, instead as a precautionary measure, he should wipe the right foot first and then the left. If the sequence is not followed as mentioned, the Wudhu will be void.
Tenth Condition: The acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without time gap in between.
289. If there is so much of gap between the acts of Wudhu, that when one is washing a part of Wudhu or wiping a part, he should first ensure that all the preceding parts which he had washed or wiped have not dried up. If they have all dried up, his Wudhu will be void. But if one of the parts has dried up which he has washed or wiped, for example, while washing his left arm, he finds that his right arm or his face has dried up, as per recommended precaution one should perform the Wudhu again.
290. If a person performs acts of Wudhu consecutively, but the moisture of the previous parts dries up owing to hot weather, or excessive heat of the body or any other similar cause, his Wudhu is in order.
291. There is no harm in walking while performing Wudhu. Hence, if after washing his face and hands, a person walks a few steps and then wipes his head and feet, his Wudhu is valid.
Eleventh Condition: A person doing Wudhu should wash his hands and face and wipe his head and feet himself. Hence, if another person makes him perform Wudhu, or helps him in pouring water over his face, or hands, or in wiping his head, or feet, his Wudhu is void.
292. If a person cannot perform Wudhu himself, he should appoint someone to assist him, even if it means washing and wiping jointly. And if that person demands any payment for that, he should be paid, provided one can afford. But he should make Niyyat of Wudhu himself, and should wipe using his own hands, if he cannot wipe on his own, then his assistant should hold his hand and help him wipe his head and feet, and if this is not possible then the assistant should take the moisture from his hands and wipe his head and hands on his behalf.
293. One should not obtain assistance in performing those acts of Wudhu, which one can perform alone.
Twelfth Condition: One should not be constraint for using water.
294. If a person fears that he will fall ill if he performs Wudhu, or, if water is used up for Wudhu, no water will be left for drinking; he does not have to do Wudhu and should perform Tayammum instead. If he was unaware that water was harmful to him, and he performed Wudhu, and later on, it turned out to be harmful, as per obligatory precaution in addition to the Wudhu, one should also perform Tayammum.
If one has prayed with that Wudhu, he should perform Tayammum and pray again. If one was unaware that water was harmful to him, and he performed Wudhu, and later on, it did not turn out to be harmful, as per precautionary measures, one should perform a fresh Wudhu.
295. If one finds that using minimum quantity for washing the face and the hands properly will not be harmful, he should do Wudhu by restricting himself to that quantity of water.
Thirteenth Condition: There should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu.
296. If a person finds that something has stuck to any part of Wudhu, but doubts whether it will prevent water from reaching there, he should remove that thing, or pour water under it.
297. Dirt under the fingernails would not affect Wudhu. However, when the nails are cut, and there remains dirt which prevents water from reaching the skin, then that dirt must be removed. Moreover, if the nails are unusually long, the dirt collected beneath the unusual part, ought to be cleansed.
298. If swelling takes place on the face, or hands, or the front part of the head, or the feet because of burns or other reason, it will be sufficient to wash and wipe over the swelling. If there is an opening or hole in it, it will not be necessary to reach water under the skin.
In fact, if a part of its skin gets peeled off, it is not at all necessary to pour water under the unpeeled part. However, at times there is skin which hangs loose after having peeled off, it should be cut off, or water should be poured underneath.
299. If a person doubts whether something has remained stuck to the parts of Wudhu, and if it is a doubt which is deemed sensible by the people, like, a potter doubting whether clay is stuck to his hands after his work, he should examine and clean his hands by scrubbing etc., till he is sure that there are no remnants, or that water has reached underneath it.
300. If there is dirt on the part of Wudhu which will not prevent water reaching the body while washing or wiping, the Wudhu will be in order. Similarly, if some white
lime splashed from the whitewash stays on the body, not obstructing water from reaching it, Wudhu will be valid. And if one doubts whether it may obstruct, then one should remove the splashed particles.
301. If a person was aware before performing Wudhu, that on some parts of Wudhu, there is something which could prevent water from reaching them, but if he doubts after performing Wudhu whether water reached those parts or not, if he presumes that he was aware of it while performing Wudhu, his Wudhu will be in order.
302. If on some part of Wudhu, there is an obstruction which at times allows water to reach the skin and at times does not, and if he doubts after having performed Wudhu about water have reached the skin or not, if he presumes that he was unaware of water reaching underneath it while performing Wudhu, as an obligatory precaution, he should repeat the Wudhu.
303. If after Wudhu, a person finds something on the parts of Wudhu which prevents water from reaching the skin, not knowing whether it was present at the time of Wudhu, or it appeared later, his Wudhu would be in order. But if he knows that at the time of Wudhu, he was not bothered about that obstruction, then as per obligatory precaution, he should repeat Wudhu.
304. If a person doubts after Wudhu whether any obstruction was there or not, and presumes that he was aware about the obstruction and have removed whatever was there, his Wudhu will be valid, and if he knows that he was not bothered at the time of performing Wudhu, as per obligatory precaution, he should repeat Wudhu.