Things on which Tayammum is allowed
692. Tayammum can be done on earth, sand, lump of clay or stone, but, as per recommended precaution, if earth is available Tayammum should not be performed on anything else. If earth is not available, then it can be performed on sand, and if sand is not available then it can be performed on a lump of clay, and if even a lump of clay is not available then it can be performed on a stone.
693. Tayammum can also be performed on gypsum and lime – stone. However, as per precautionary measures, it is better to avoid baked gypsum and limestone if other alternatives are available.
694. If a person cannot find earth, sand, lump of clay or stone, he should perform Tayammum on dust particles which settle on the carpets or the dresses, if it can be seen then one should perform Tayammum on that, and if it cannot be seen but when one hits his hand on it, it flies in the air, in this situation as per precautionary measures one should perform another Tayammum on mud. And if even the dust is not available, one should perform Tayammum on mud, and if even mud is not available, then as per precautionary measure, one should pray without Tayammum, but it will be obligatory for him to repeat the prayers later as Qadha.
695. If a person can gather some earth by shaking the carpet etc. then to do Tayammum with dust particles will not be correct. And similarly if he can make mud dry and obtain earth from it, then Tayammum on wet mud will be incorrect and void.
696. If a person does not have water, but has snow or ice, he should, if possible, melt it into water and perform Wudhu and Ghusl. And if it is not possible to do so and also he does not have anything on which Tayammum is allowed then, as per precautionary measures, one should make the parts of Wudhu or Ghusl wet with snow or ice. And if even this is not possible, he should perform Tayammum on snow or ice and offer prayers in time, however, in both conditions one should offer Qadha of his prayers.
697. If a thing like straw, on which Tayammum is void, gets mixed with clay and sand, then Tayammum cannot be performed on it. However, if it is so little that it gets lost in the sand or clay, then Tayammum with it is valid.
698. If a person does not own anything on which to perform Tayammum he should, if possible, get it by purchasing or other similar means.
699. Performing Tayammum on mud wall is valid, however, as per recommended precaution, if dry earth or clay is available, Tayammum should not be performed on wet earth or mud.
700. The thing on which a person performs Tayammum should be Pak and, if he has no Pak thing on which Tayammum would be correct, as per precautionary measures, one should offer prayer without Tayammum but it is obligatory for him to offer its Qadha.
701. If a person was sure that Tayammum on a particular thing was valid and he did it accordingly, but came to know later that Tayammum performed was void, he would repeat the prayers performed with that Tayammum.
702. The place of the thing used for Tayammum should not be usurped, hence, if one performs Tayammum on an usurped earth or an earth which belongs to him but places in someone else’s property without the owner's permission and performs Tayammum on it, Tayammum will be void.
703. Tayammum performed in usurped area or space, is void. Hence, if a person strikes his hands on the earth for Tayammum in his own property, and then enters the property of another person without obtaining permission to wipe his hands on his forehead, his Tayammum is incorrect and void.
704. If someone does Tayammum on a usurped object, or in a usurped place, or on an object (which belongs to him but) placed in an usurped place is void, provided, one should know about that object or place being usurped and intentionally performs Tayammum, if one performs Tayammum forgetfully or by way of negligence, his Tayammum will be valid. However, if a person himself usurps an object or a place or has performed Tayammum in a usurped place (on an object which belongs to him), and forgets that he has usurped it, then Tayammum performed on such a thing cannot be considered as valid.
705. If a person is imprisoned in a usurped place and both the water and earth of that place are usurped, he should pray with Tayammum.
706. It is Mustahab that the thing on which a person is performing Tayammum should, have dust particles which would stick to the hands, and after striking hands on it, it is Mustahab one should shake off all the particles from ones hands.
707. It is Makrooh to perform Tayammum on the earth of a pit, and street dust, or the saline earth, on which a layer of salt has not settled. However, if a layer of salt has settled on the earth, performance of Tayammum on it is void.