Time for Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers
737. If a stick, or anything similar to it, (which acts as an indicator) is made to stand on a level ground, its shadow will fall westwards when the sun rises in the morning, and as the sun continues to rise the shadow cast by the indicator will reduce in size. And in our cities it becomes smallest at the time of the commencement of Zuhr.
And as Zuhr passes the shadow cast by the indicator turns eastwards, and as the sun moves towards west the shadow gets longer. Based on this, when the shadow is the shortest, and it begins getting longer again, it is known that Zuhr has taken place. However, in other cities like in Mecca, the shadow disappears totally, so, when it reappears it indicates Zuhr.
738. A stick, or anything similar to it, which is made to stand on a level ground to find out the Zuhr time is called Shakhis (Indicator).
739. According to the view of Mashhoor (famous) scholars, there are specific timings and common timings for offering both Namaz – e – Zuhr and ‘Asr.
Specific timing of offering Namaz – e – Zuhr is from when the sun starts declining at midday till the time taken for offering 4 Rak’ats, and if anyone unintentionally offers Namaz – e – ‘Asr during that time his Namaz will be void, this view is according to the precautionary measures, and specific time of offering the Namaz – e – ‘Asr is when there is time for only 4 Rak’ats left before Maghrib sets in. And by this time if someone has not offered his Namaz – e – Zuhr, then Zuhr will be considered as Qadha and he should now offer his ‘Asr prayers. In between the two specific times of offering Namaz – e – Zuhr and ‘Asr, there is common timing to offer both Namaz, in which if a person unintentionally offers ‘Asr prayers earlier than Zuhr prayers, his prayer will be in order, and should offer Namaz – e – Zuhr after it.
740. If a person begins offering ‘Asr prayers forgetfully before Zuhr prayers and during the prayers he realizes that he has committed a mistake, he should revert his Niyyat to Zuhr prayers i.e. he should intend that whatever he has offered and whatever he is offering and whatever he will offer from now onwards till the end of the prayers, it would be Zuhr prayers. After completing the prayers, he will offer ‘Asr prayers. If it was offered during the specific time of Zuhr prayers, then as per precautionary measures, he should revert his Niyyat to Zuhr prayers and should
complete the prayers, and later he should offer both prayers (i.e. Zuhr and ‘Asr) in order.
741. During the presence of Imam Zamaan (May Allah hasten His reappearance), it is obligatory to offer Namaz – e – Jumuah (Friday noon prayer), which consists of 2 Rak’ats instead of Zuhr prayers. However, if someone offers Namaz – e – Jumuah during the period of occultation of Imam Zamaan (May Allah hasten His reappearance), as per obligatory precaution, he should also offer Namaz – e – Zuhr.
742. Time of Namaz – e – Jumuah commences as time for Zuhr prayers sets in, and it only remains till the person offers it with its conditions – i.e. Taharat from Hadath and Khabath and congregation – in earliest.
 Those acts which invalidates Wudhu.
 Those acts which invalidates Wudhu and after which Ghusl becomes obligatory.
 Zuhr, is sometimes few minutes before 12 o’clock noon and sometimes few minutes after 12 o’clock.