رسول الله صلى الله علیه و آله :شَعبانُ شَهری و رَمَضانُ شَهرُ اللّهِ فَمَن صامَ شَهری كُنتُ لَهُ شَفیعا یَومَ القِیامَةِ پیامبر صلى الله علیه و آله :شعبان ، ماه من و رمضان ماه خداوند است . هر كه ماه مرا روزه بدارد ، در روز قیامت شفیع او خواهم... بیشتر
يكشنبه: 1401/04/12

Congregational prayers

 

1408. It is Mustahab that obligatory prayers, especially the daily prayers, are performed in congregation, and more emphasis has been laid on congregational prayers for Fajr, Maghrib and ‘Isha, and also for those who live in the neighborhood of a Masjid, or on those who are able to hear its Azaan.

1409. It has been reported in authentic traditions, that if a person joins an Imam for the congregational prayers, every Rak’at has got the reward of offering hundred and fifty Rak’ats, and if two people join an Imam for the congregational prayers, every Rak’at has got the reward of offering six hundred Rak’ats, and the rewards of the prayer exceeds as the number of people in congregation increases to ten, and if the number of people offering prayers in congregation exceeds, the reward of one Rak’at prayer will be so much that if all the skies become paper, and seas become ink and trees become pens, and all the humans, jinns and angels become writer they will not be able to calculate it’s reward.

1410. It is not permissible to absent oneself from the congregational prayers unduly, and it is not proper to abandon congregational prayers without a justifiable excuse.

1411. It is Mustahab to defer prayers with an intention to participate in congregational prayers. A congregational prayer offered a little after its prime time is better than the individual prayer offered at its prime time. A short congregational prayer is better than the prolonged individual prayer.

 

1412. When congregational prayers are being offered, it is Mustahab for a person, who has already offered his prayers alone, to repeat the prayers in congregation. And if he learns later that his first prayer was void, the second prayer will suffice.

1413. If the Imam (leader) or the Ma’mum (follower) wishes to join a congregation prayer again, after having already prayed in congregation once, and wants to be the Imam for those who have not yet offered their prayers there is no objection in doing so. However, if one wants to offer his prayers with congregation for the third time, there is an objection.

1414. If a person is so obsessed with doubts and anxiety during prayers, which leads to its invalidity, and if he finds peace only in congregational prayers, he must offer prayers in congregation.

1415. If a father or a mother orders his/her son to offer prayers in congregation, and if disobedience would cause injury to their feelings, then it is obligatory upon him to offer his prayers with congregation.

1416. Mustahab prayers cannot be offered in congregation in any situation, except Istisqa prayers, which is prayed to invoke the rain, or prayers which were obligatory at one time, but became Mustahab later, like, Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Azha prayers, which are obligatory during the presence of infallible Imam (peace be upon Him) and are Mustahab during his occultation.

1417. When an Imam is leading a congregation for the daily prayers, one can follow him for any of the daily prayers. But, if Imam was offering his daily prayers again as per precaution, there is Ishkal (objection) in following him.

1418. If Imam of the congregation is offering his own Qadha, he can be followed. However, if Imam is offering Qadha of his daily prayers again as per precaution, or offering Qadha on behalf of the other, and it is not known whether or not it is his own Qadha, it is not permissible to follow him. However, if one knows that the prayer offered by Imam is the Qadha of a dead person, it is permissible to join him, even if he has taken money to offer that prayer.

1419. If a person does not know whether the prayers of Imam is an obligatory daily prayer or Mustahab prayer, he cannot follow him.

1420. If Imam is standing in the Mehrab, and there is no follower behind him, those who are standing on the either sides of the Imam and because of the wall cannot see the Imam, they cannot follow the Imam. Moreover, if there is a follower standing

 

behind the Imam and the other two people standing on the either side of him, and are linked with congregation and because of the wall of the Mehrab, they cannot see the Imam, the validity of their prayers is deliberate.

1421. If the persons standing at the end of the first row, cannot see the Imam because the line is very long, they can still follow him; similarly, if the following rows are very long, and persons standing at the far end cannot see the line before, they can follow the congregation.

1422. If the rows of the congregation extend to the gate of the Masjid, the prayers of a person standing in front of the gate behind the line will be in order, and the prayers of those followers who stand behind him will also be valid. As per obligatory precaution, those who are standing on either sides of him, if they cannot see the line before them, they should not join the prayers.

1423. If a person who is standing behind a pillar is not linked with the Imam by another follower from either side, he cannot follow the Imam.

1424. The place where Imam stands should not be higher than the place of the follower, however, if the height is negligible, the prayers is in order. And, if the ground has a slope, and the Imam stand at the higher end, if the slope is so small that people ordinarily consider the ground as flat, there will be no objection.

1425. In the congregational prayers, there is no objection if the place where followers stand is higher than that of the Imam. But if it is so high, that it cannot be considered that they have assembled together, then the congregation is not in order.

1426. If a discerning child, one who is able to distinguish good from evil, stands between two persons in one line, thus causing a distance, they can join the congregation, as long as they know that the child’s Namaz is in order. And if they doubt in the validity of that child’s Namaz and the gap between the lines is considerable, and he is the link of the whole line to the Imam, following that child is objectionable. However, gap caused by one child is negligible even if his Namaz is void.

1427. If after the Takbir of the Imam, the persons in the front row are ready for prayers and are about to say Takbir, a person standing in the back row can say Takbir. However, as per recommended precaution, he should wait, till the Takbir of the front row has been pronounced.

 

1428. If a person knows that the prayers of one of the rows in front is void, he cannot follow the Imam in the back rows, but if he does not know whether the prayers of those persons are in order or not, he may follow.

1429. If a person knows that the prayers of the Imam is void - like, if he knows that the Imam is without Wudhu, though the Imam himself may not be mindful of the fact, he cannot follow that Imam.

1430. If the follower learns after the prayers, that the Imam was not a just person (‘Aadil), or his Namaz was void for any other reason, like, having no Wudhu, his own Namaz will be in order.

1431. If a person doubts during Namaz whether he has followed the Imam or not, he will rely upon the signs which satisfactorily lead him to believing that he has been following. For example, if he finds himself listening silently to the Qira’at of Imam, he should complete the prayers with the congregation. But if he is in a situation where no such decision can be made, and which is common in individual and congregational prayers, like, he is in state of Ruku’ or Sajdah, he should complete his prayers with the intention of offering it individually (i.e. Furada).

1432. As per obligatory precaution, while offering prayers in congregation as long as he does not have a genuine excuse he should not do the Niyyat of Furada. However, he can do the Niyyat of Furada any time before Salam of Imam.

1433. If the follower makes an intention of Furada after the Imam has recited Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah, because of some good excuse, it will not be necessary for him to recite Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah. But if he makes the intention of Furada before Imam has completed Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah, it will be necessary for him to recite the remaining part of the Surah, which is not recited by the Imam. Instead, as per precautionary measures, he should even recite that part of the Surah which is already recited by the Imam.

1434. If a person makes the intention of Furada during the congregation prayers, he cannot revert back to congregational prayers again. But, if he is undecided whether he should make the intention of Furada or not, and eventually decides to end the prayers with congregation, the validity of his prayers with the congregation is objectionable.

1435. If a person doubts whether or not he had made an intention of Furada during the congregational prayers, he should consider that he had not made the intention.

 

1436. If a person joins the Imam at the time of Ruku’, and participates in Ruku’ of the Imam, his prayer is in order, even if the Zikr by the Imam may have come to an end. It will be treated as one Rak’at. However, if he bows down to the amount of Ruku’ and misses Imam’s Ruku’, his congregational prayer will be void, but as per precautionary measures, he should raise his head from Ruku’ and treat it as one Rak’at and complete his prayers as Furada, and repeat the prayers. However, most likely the prayers offered is in order.

1437. If a person joins the Imam when he is in Ruku’, and as he bows, he doubts whether or not he reached the Ruku’ of the Imam, his congregational prayer will be void, and he should act according to the precautionary measures mentioned in the preceding rule. Although as mentioned earlier, most likely the prayer offered is in order. However, if that doubt occurs while he is saying the Zikr of Ruku’ or after the Ruku’ was over, his congregational prayers will be in order.

1438. If a person joins the Imam when he is in Ruku’, but before he bows to Ruku’, the Imam raises his head from his Ruku’, as per obligatory precaution, he should remain standing till Imam rises up again for the next Rak’at, and should consider it as his first Rak’at. If standing up of the Imam takes so long, that he will no longer be said that he is offering congregational prayers, he should complete his prayers with the Niyyat of Furada.

1439. If a person joins the Imam from the beginning of the prayers or during the time of Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah, and if it so happens that, before he goes into Ruku’, Imam raises his head from Ruku’, if he has not delayed his Ruku’ intentionally, his prayers will be in order, or else, as per obligatory precaution, he should complete the prayer and offer it again.

1440. If a person arrives for prayers when the Imam is reciting the last Tashahhud, and if he wishes to earn 'Thawab' (reward) of congregational prayers, he should sit down after making Niyyat, and pronouncing Takbiratul Ihram, and may recite Tashahhud with the Imam, but not the Salam, and then wait till the Imam says Salam of the prayers. Then he should stand up, and without making Niyyat and Takbir, begin to recite Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah treating it as the first Rak’at of his prayers.

1441. The followers should not stand in front of the Imam, and, as per obligatory precaution, if the follower is one person, he should stand a little behind on the right side of the Imam, and when the followers are many, they should stand behind the Imam. In the first condition, if the follower is taller than the Imam, then he should

 

stand a little behind than Imam, in such a way that when he goes to Ruku’ or Sajdah he does not go ahead of Imam.

1442. In congregational prayer there should not be any obstruction of curtain, between the Imam and the followers, or any similar thing through which nothing could be seen, even, as per obligatory precaution, there should not be even glass walls and other similar things. Similarly, there should be no obstruction between the followers who links the other to the Imam in the congregational prayer. However, if the Imam is a male and the follower is a female, and if there is a curtain or something similar between that woman and the Imam, or between that woman and another male follower, and the woman is linked to the Imam through that male, there is no harm in it.

1443. If after the commencement of the prayers, a curtain or something similar intervenes between the follower and the Imam, or between one follower and the other, through whom the follower is linked to the Imam, his prayers will turn into Furada, and it will become necessary for the follower to act according to Furada obligation.

1444. As an obligatory precaution, the distance between the place where the follower performs Sajdah, and where the Imam stands, should not be more than a widely opened foot. Similarly, a person who is linked with the Imam through another follower standing in front, as per obligatory precaution, the distance between the place where the follower performs Sajdah, and where the follower in the front row stands, should not be more than a widely opened foot. And as per recommended precaution, the distance between the place where the follower performs Sajdah, and where the follower in the front row stands, should not be more than a regular foot, it is better that there should be no distance at all.

1445. If a follower is linked to the Imam by means of a person, on his either side, and is not linked to the Imam in front, as per obligatory precaution, he should not be at a distance of more than a widely opened foot from his companions on either side.

1446. If during the prayers, a distance of one widely opened foot occurs between the follower and the Imam, or between the follower and the person through whom he is linked to the Imam, he (the follower) will be isolated, and his prayers is in order, and can continue as Furada, even intention of continuing Furada is not required.

1447. If the prayers of all the persons who are in the front row comes to an end, or all of them make a Niyyat of Furada, the congregational prayers of the person in the

 

back rows will turn into Furada. Even if the followers of the front row, immediately follow the Imam again to resume with another prayer.

1448. If a person joins the Imam in the second Rak’at, it is not necessary for him to recite Surah Al – Hamd and Surah, but he may recite Qunoot and Tashahhud with the Imam, and as per precaution, at the time of reciting Tashahhud, he should keep the fingers of his hands and the inner part of his feet on the ground and raise his knees.
And after the Tashahhud, he should stand up with the Imam and should recite Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah. And if he does not have time for the other Surah, he should complete Surah Al – Hamd, and join the Imam in Ruku’, and if he cannot join the Imam in Ruku’, as per obligatory precaution, he should complete Surah Al – Hamd and join the Imam in Sajdah. But if he reaches the Imam in Sajdah, it is recommended that he should repeat his prayers.

1449. If a person joins the Imam when he is in the second Rak’at of the Namaz having four Rak’ats, he should sit after the two Sajdah in the second Rak’at, which will be the third of the Imam, and recite Wajib parts of Tashahhud, and should then stand up. And if he does not have time to recite the Tasbihat Arba’ah thrice, he should recite it once, and then join the Imam in Ruku’ or in Sajdah.

1450. If Imam is in the third or fourth Rak’at, and one knows that if he joins him and recite Surah Al – Hamd he will not be able to reach him in Ruku’, as an obligatory precaution, he should wait till Imam goes to Ruku’ and then join.

1451. If a person joins the Imam when he is in the state of Qiyam of third or fourth Rak’at, he should recite Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah, and if he does not have time for the other Surah, he should complete Surah Al – Hamd and join the Imam in Ruku’. But if he cannot join the Imam in Ruku’, he should recite Surah Al – Hamd and join the Imam in Sajdah. But if he reaches the Imam in Sajdah, it is recommended that he should repeat his prayers.

1452. If a person who knows that if he completes Surah or Qunoot, he will not be able to join the Imam in his Ruku’, yet he purposely recites Surah or Qunoot, and misses the Imam in Ruku’, the validity of his congregational prayer is objectionable.

1453. If a person is satisfied that if he commences a Surah or completes it, he will be able to join the Imam in his Ruku’, it is not obligatory upon him to start the Surah, or if he has commenced it, he should complete it, instead, as Imam goes to Ruku’, he can abandon the Surah and join the Imam in Ruku’.

 

1454. If a person is sure that if he recites the other Surah, he will be able to join the Imam in Ruku’, and then if he recites the Surah and misses the Imam in Ruku’, his congregational prayers are in order.

1455. If Imam is standing, and the follower does not know in which Rak’at he is, he can join him, but he should recite Surah Al – Hamd and the other Surah with the Niyyat of Qurbat though he may come to know later that the Imam was in the first or second Rak’at, his prayer is in order.

1456. If a person does not recite Surah Al – Hamd and Surah, under the impression that the Imam is in the first or second Rak’at, and realizes after Ruku’ that he was in the third or fourth Rak’at, his prayers are in order. However, if he realizes this before Ruku’, he should recite Surah Al - Hamd and the other Surah, and if he does not have sufficient time for this, he should recite Surah Al – Hamd and join the Imam in Ruku’ or Sajdah.

1457. If a person recites Surah Al - Hamd and Surah under the impression that the Imam is in the third or fourth Rak’at, and realizes before or after Ruku’ that he was in the first or second, his prayers are in order, and if he realizes this while reciting Surah Al - Hamd and the other Surah, it will not be necessary for him to complete them.

1458. If a congregational prayer begins while a person is offering a Mustahab prayers, and if he is not sure that if he completes his Mustahab prayers, he will be able to join the congregational prayers, it is Mustahab to abandon the Mustahab prayers, and join the congregational prayers. In fact, if he is not certain that he will be able to join the first Rak’at, he should follow this rule.

1459. If a congregational prayer begins while a person is offering a prayer of three or four Rak’ats, and if he has not gone into Ruku’ of the third Rak’at, and is not sure whether upon completion, he will be able to join the congregational prayers, it is Mustahab to end the prayers with the Niyyat of Mustahab prayers of two Rak'ats, and join the congregational prayers.

1460. If the prayers of the Imam comes to an end, but the follower is still reciting Tashahhud or the first Salam, it is not necessary for him to make the intention of Furada.

1461. If a person is behind the Imam by one Rak’at, it is better that when the Imam is reciting Tashahhud of the last Rak’at, he (the follower) should place the fingers of his hands and the inner part of his feet on the ground, and raise his knees, and wait

 

till the Imam recites the Tashahhud of the prayers and then stand up. It is not obligatory upon him to wait till the Imam says the Salam of the prayers.

نويسنده:

کليد واژه:

Islamic Laws (Taudheeh Al-Masail)