Things which invalidate prayers
1135. Twelve things make prayers void, and they are called Mubtilat.
First: If any of the pre-requisites of prayers ceases to exist while one is in Namaz, like, if he comes to know that the place where he is offering his prayers is a usurped one, if he has ample time in his disposal, and can leave that usurped land (then he should do so), however, if the time left is so less that if he tries to leave that usurped land his Namaz will be Qadha, if he offers his prayer there, it will be in order, however, he should complete his prayer while exiting the place. Similarly, if he cannot leave the usurped land, like he is imprisoned there, he should offer his prayer there and it will be in order.
Second: If a person, intentionally or by mistake, or uncontrollably, indulges in an act which makes his Wudhu or Ghusl void, like, when urine comes out.
But if a person is incontinent, unable to control urine or excretion, and during Namaz urine or excretion comes out, and he acts according the rule mentioned earlier in rulings from 313 to321, his prayers will not be void. Similarly, if a woman sees blood of Istihadha during prayers, her Namaz is not invalidated if she has acted according to the rules of Istihadha.
1136. If a person sleeps involuntarily, not knowing whether he slept during Namaz or afterwards, as per obligatory precaution, he should repeat the prayers.
1137. If a person knows that he slept voluntarily, but doubts whether he slept after or during the prayers, or if he forgot during the prayers that he was praying and fell asleep, his prayers will be valid.
1138. If a person wakes up in Sajdah, and doubts whether he is in the Sajdah of the Namaz or in the Sajdah for Shukr, he should pray again if he slept involuntarily.
Third: If a person folds his hands like those who are not Shia, his prayers will be void.
1139. If a person folds his hands as a mark reverence, even if it is not like them, as per obligatory precaution, one should offer his Namaz again. However, there is no harm if a person places one hand on another forgetfully, or due to helplessness, or for some other purposes, like, scratching.
Fourth: The fourth thing which invalidates prayers is to say “Ameen” after Surah Al – Hamd. There is no harm if someone utters it erroneously or under Taqayya.
Fifth: The fifth thing which invalidates prayers is if one turns away from Qibla completely, intentionally or mistakenly, or if he turns away towards his right or left. And if he turned away towards right or left side in such a way that it could not be
said that one is facing the Qibla, his prayer will be void, even if he does not turn toward his right or left completely.
1140. If a person intentionally turns his head away towards his back, his prayers will be void. But if he turns his head towards his back unintentionally, as per obligatory precaution, one should complete his prayers and offer it again. However, if one turns away his face towards his left or right, intentionally or mistakenly, his prayers will not be void, however, it is Makrooh to do so.
Sixth: The sixth thing which invalidates prayers is intentionally uttering a word which contains at least two letters or more, even if it does not make any sense, however, if he utters that word unintentionally, his prayer will be in order.
1141. If a person forgetfully utters a word which is consist of one letter, and that word may carry some meaning, For example, one letter “Qi” (قِ) in Arabic means “protect yourself”, if he knew the meaning of it and he meant it, then his prayers will be void. Even if he did not meant it but was conscious toward it meaning, as per obligatory precaution, he should offer his prayers again. Even if a letter uttered do not carry any meaning, as per precautionary measures, one should offer his prayer again.
1142. There is no harm in coughing, belching or heaving a sigh. However, if someone purposely utters ‘Oh’ or ‘Ah’, which contains two letters, his Namaz will be void.
1143. If a person utters a word with the object of Zikr, like, if he says ‘Allahu Akbar’, and raises his voice to indicate something, there is no harm in it. In fact, there is no harm if he utters Zikr with the knowledge that it will convey something to one who hears it.
1144. There is no harm in reciting the Qur'an, except the four verses, which make Sajdah obligatory, and which have been mentioned in rule no. 361 and in reciting Duas during the prayers. However, as per recommended precaution, one should not read Duas in any language other than Arabic.
1145. There is no harm if a person intentionally or as per precaution repeats parts of Surah Al – Hamd and other Surah, and the Zikr of prayers, however there is Ishkal (objection) in repeating it because of temptation.
1146. A person offering prayers should not greet anyone with Salam, and if another person says Salam to him, he should use the same words in reply without adding
anything to it.
For example, if someone says Salamun ‘Alaykum, he should also say Salamun ‘Alaykum in reply. But if someone initiated Salam saying ‘Alaykum As – Salam, then the answer will be Salamun ‘Alaykum.
1147. It is necessary that the reply to Salam is given at once, irrespective of whether one is praying or not. And if, whether intentionally or due to forgetfulness, he delays reply to the Salam, so much that if he gives a reply after the delay, it may not be reckoned to be a reply to that Salam, then he should not reply if he is in Namaz. And if he is not in Namaz it is not obligatory for him to reply.
1148. A person should reply to a Salam in a way that one who greets him can hear it. However, if he who says Salam is deaf, then if his Salam is responded in a normal way is sufficient, and if possible one should make reciprocation by sign or moving the lips to make him understand.
1149. One should reply to Salam with the intention of replying to the greeting, not with the intention of Qur’an and Dua.
1150. If a woman or a Na – Mahram or a discerning child, that is, one who can distinguish between good and evil, says Salam to a person in Namaz, the person should respond. However, in reply to the Salam by a woman on should say Salamun Alayk, without giving Kas’rah or Fat’hah to Kaf at the end.
1151. If a person in Namaz does not respond to Salam, his prayers are in order, though he will have committed a sin.
1152. If a person says Salam to a person in Namaz in a mistaken way, such that it cannot be treated as a Salam, it is not permissible to reply to it. However, if it can be treated as Salam, it is obligatory to reply.
1153. It is not obligatory to give reply to the Salam said in jest, or for fun; moreover, if the person is in Namaz is not permissible for him to reply. It is not permissible to reply to the Salam of a non-Muslim if a person is in Namaz, and if he is not in the state of Namaz, it is sufficient to say ‘Alayka only.
1154. If a person says Salam to a group of people, it is obligatory for all of them to give a reply. However, if one of them replies, it is sufficient.
1155. If a person says Salam to a group of people, but a person for whom it was not intended gives a reply, it will still be obligatory upon the group to reply.
1156. If a person says Salam to a group among whom one was in Namaz, and that person doubts whether Salam was intended for him or not, it will not be necessary for him to give a reply. And if the person offering prayers is sure that he was also intended by the one who greeted, but someone else has made a response, he does not have to reply. But if he is sure that he was among the group for whom Salam was intended, and no one has replied, then he should reply.
1157. It is Mustahab to greet with Salam, and it has been emphatically enjoined that a person who is riding should greet one who is walking, and a person who is standing should greet one who is sitting, and a younger person should greet an elder.
1158. If two persons simultaneously say Salam to each other, each one of them should reply the Salam of the other.
1159. When a person is not in Namaz, it is Mustahab that his response to the Salam should be more expansive. For example, if one says Salamun ‘Alaykum, the other should say Salamun ‘Alaykum wa Rahmatullah in reply.
Seventh: The seventh thing which makes Namaz void is an intentional loud laugh. Similarly, if one unintentionally laughs loudly, in such a way that the form of Namaz is disrupted, his Namaz will be void. However, smiling does not void one’s prayer.
1160. If in order to control the sound of his laughter, the condition of the person in Namaz changes, his Namaz will be void.
Eight: The eighth thing which makes Namaz void is if one intentionally weeps loudly, over some worldly matters, his Namaz will be void. As per obligatory precaution, one should not even weep silently over some worldly matter. But, if he weeps silently or loudly due to fear of Allah, or for the Hereafter, there is no harm in it. In fact, it is among the best acts.
Ninth: Any act which changes the form of Namaz like, clapping or jumping up and down and other similar things, invalidates the Namaz, regardless of whether that act is done less or more, intentionally or forgetfully. However, there is no harm in actions which do not change the form of Namaz, like, making a brief sign with one’s hand.
1161. If a person remains silent during Namaz for so long, that it may not be said that he is offering prayers, his Namaz is invalidated.
1162. If a person performs an extraneous act during Namaz, or maintains prolonged silence, and then doubts whether his prayers has been thereby invalidated, he should complete the prayer and offer it again. However, if one did not know the ruling, he should complete his Namaz with the intention of Raja’, and should ask for the ruling and then should act accordingly.
Tenth: Eating or drinking. If a person offering prayers eats or drinks in such a manner that it may not be said that he is offering Namaz, his prayers would be void, regardless of whether he does it intentionally or forgetfully. However, if a person who wants to keep a fast is offering a Mustahab Namaz before the Adhan of Fajr, and being thirsty, fears that by the time he completes the prayers it will be Fajr, he can drink water during that Mustahab prayers, provided water is not more than two to three steps away from him, and he should be careful not to commit acts which invalidate Namaz, like turning his face away from Qibla.
1163. If the Muwalat of Namaz disrupts due to intentional eating or drinking, in such a way that it may not be said that he is offering prayers in usual succession, as per obligatory precaution, he should repeat the Namaz.
1164. If a person in Namaz swallows the food which has remained in his mouth or around his teeth, his prayers are not invalidated. Similarly, if things like sugar cubes or sugar remain in the mouth and they melt slowly and go down the throat, there is no harm in it.
Eleventh: Any doubt concerning the number of Rak’ats in those prayers which consist of two or three Rak’ats, will render the Namaz void. Also, if one doubts about the number of the first two Rak’ats, of Namaz having four Rak’ats, (like, Zuhr, ‘Asr and ‘Isha), his Namaz will be void if he continues to be in doubt.
Twelfth: If a person omits or adds the Rukn (elemental parts) of the Namaz, either intentionally or forgetfully, his Namaz is void. And if one omits purposely acts which are not Rukn, or makes an addition, Namaz will be void. However, if one forgetfully adds one more Takbiratul Ihram as mentioned in the ruling no. 951, as per precautionary measures, his Namaz will be void.
1165. If a person doubts after the Namaz, whether or not he performed any such act which invalidated the prayers, his Namaz will be in order.