چهارشنبه: 2/خرد/1403 (الأربعاء: 14/ذو القعدة/1445)

Method of Ascertaining the First Day of a Month


1739. The 1st day of a month is ascertained by the following five ways:

  • If a person sights the moon himself.
  • If a number of people confirm to have sighted the moon, and their words assure or satisfy a person. Similarly, every other thing, which assures or satisfies him about moon having being sighted.
  • If two just (Aadil) persons say that they have sighted the moon at night.  Provided that they do not describe the moon differently and their words can be acknowledged. Therefore, if they describe the moon differently, when the sky is cloudy, or when the sky is clear and no one except these two person have seen it, it will not suffice.
  • If 30 days pass from the first of Sha'ban, the first of Ramadhan will be established, and if 30 days pass from the first of Ramadhan, the first of Shawwal will be established.
  • If the religious authority declares that, it is the first of a month.

1740. If the religious authority declares that, it is the first of a month, if someone who is not his follower (Muqallid), that person should also follow his command.


However, if someone knows that the religious authority is mistaken then he cannot follow his command.

1741. The first day of a month will not be proved by the prediction made by the astronomers. However, if a person derives full satisfaction and certitude from their findings, he should act accordingly.

1742. If the moon is high up in the sky, or sets late, it is not an indication that the previous night was the first night of the month.

1743. If the first day of the month of Ramadhan is not proved for a person and he does not observe fast, and later two Aadil person testify in front of him that they have seen the moon on the previous night, then he should observe Qadha of that day.

1744. It is not farfetched that if the first day of a month is proved in a city, it is also proved in other cities.

1745. The first day of a month is not proved by a telegram except when one is sure that the telegram is a command of the religious authority or it is based on the testimony of two Aadils.

1746. If a person does not know that whether it is the last day of Ramadhan or the first of Shawwal, he should observe fast on that day, however, if he comes to know before Maghrib that it is the first of Shawwal, he should break the fast.

1747. If a prisoner cannot ascertain the advent of Ramadhan, he should act on probability and even if the probability is not possible, he may consider a month and fast; however, he should fast for one more month after eleven months have been passed.